An endometrial biopsy is a procedure to exam the endometrium, the inside lining of the uterus, for abnormalities or signs of cancer. The biopsy is performed by taking a sample of endometrial tissue and examining it under a microscope.
To perform the biopsy, a speculum is inserted into the vagina and a small plastic tube is inserted through the speculum to suction a sample of the lining. Anesthesia may be used but the procedure is usually painless. The biopsy is performed to determine the cause of abnormal menstrual periods, bleeding after menopause or to screen for endometrial cancer.